Introduction - What is hydraulic fracturing?
What is Fracking?
Hydraulic fracturing involves safely tapping shale and other tight-rock formations by drilling a mile or more below the surface before gradually turning horizontal and continuing several thousand feet more. Thus, a single surface site can accommodate a number of wells. Once the well is drilled, cased and cemented, small perforations are made in the horizontal portion of the well pipe, through which a typical mixture of water (90 percent), sand (9.5 percent) and additives (0.5 percent) is pumped at high pressure to create micro-fractures in the rock that are held open by the grains of sand. Additives play a number of roles, including helping to reduce friction (thereby reducing the amount of pumping pressure from diesel-powered sources, which reduces air emissions) and prevent pipe corrosion, which in turn help protect the environment and boost well efficiency.
Because of shale and fracking, the United States is在天然气和石油生产方面处于世界领先地位. 美国能源信息管理局（EIA）项目domestic crude production will average 12.4 million barrels per day (mb/d) this year and 13.2 mb/d next year. Simply put, fracking is the engine in the U.S. energy revolution.