跳到主要内容

Introduction - What is hydraulic fracturing?

What is Fracking?

液压压裂的速度速度是一种钻孔,这是一种钻孔商业上使用65年。Today, the combination of先进的液压压裂和水平钻孔采用尖端技术,主要负责将美国油和天然气生产飙升。

Hydraulic fracturing involves safely tapping shale and other tight-rock formations by drilling a mile or more below the surface before gradually turning horizontal and continuing several thousand feet more. Thus, a single surface site can accommodate a number of wells. Once the well is drilled, cased and cemented, small perforations are made in the horizontal portion of the well pipe, through which a typical mixture of water (90 percent), sand (9.5 percent) and additives (0.5 percent) is pumped at high pressure to create micro-fractures in the rock that are held open by the grains of sand. Additives play a number of roles, including helping to reduce friction (thereby reducing the amount of pumping pressure from diesel-powered sources, which reduces air emissions) and prevent pipe corrosion, which in turn help protect the environment and boost well efficiency.

为什么要压裂?

安全的液压压裂是美国现在拥有能源革命的最大单一原因,其中一个改变了美国能源图片从稀缺到丰富。Fracking正在让美国轻拍庞大的石油和天然气储量,以前被锁在页岩和其他紧密岩层。在未来十年中,高达95%的天然气井将需要液压压裂。液压压裂也用于刺激较老井的新生产。

Because of shale and fracking, the United States is在天然气和石油生产中引领世界。美国能源信息管理局(EIA)项目domestic crude production will average 12.4 million barrels per day (mb/d) this year and 13.2 mb/d next year. Simply put, fracking is the engine in the U.S. energy revolution.

图表:美国领导天然气和石油生产