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Introduction - What is hydraulic fracturing?

What is Fracking?

水力压裂是水力压裂的简写,是一种已经被广泛应用的钻井方式商业使用65年. Today, the combination of超前水力压裂水平钻井美国石油和天然气产量猛增的主要原因是它采用了尖端技术。

Hydraulic fracturing involves safely tapping shale and other tight-rock formations by drilling a mile or more below the surface before gradually turning horizontal and continuing several thousand feet more. Thus, a single surface site can accommodate a number of wells. Once the well is drilled, cased and cemented, small perforations are made in the horizontal portion of the well pipe, through which a typical mixture of water (90 percent), sand (9.5 percent) and additives (0.5 percent) is pumped at high pressure to create micro-fractures in the rock that are held open by the grains of sand. Additives play a number of roles, including helping to reduce friction (thereby reducing the amount of pumping pressure from diesel-powered sources, which reduces air emissions) and prevent pipe corrosion, which in turn help protect the environment and boost well efficiency.

为什么水力压裂?

安全水力压裂是美国目前正在进行能源革命的最大单一原因,这场革命改变了美国能源状况,使能源从短缺变为充裕。水力压裂技术使美国能够开采出大量的石油和天然气储量,而这些储量以前被锁定在页岩和其他致密岩层中。在未来十年中,高达95%的天然气井将需要水力压裂。水力压裂也被用来刺激老井的新产量。

Because of shale and fracking, the United States is在天然气和石油生产方面处于世界领先地位. 美国能源信息管理局(EIA)项目domestic crude production will average 12.4 million barrels per day (mb/d) this year and 13.2 mb/d next year. Simply put, fracking is the engine in the U.S. energy revolution.

图表:美国天然气和石油产量领先