Liquid petroleum pipelines carry crude oil and refined petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, etc.) across state and even country borders (interstate & international) as well as within states (intrastate). Pipelines are widely acknowledged to be the safest and most efficient way to move energy products overland for long distances; crude oil and natural gas from production areas to processing plants and refineries, and consumer-ready products to markets.
Bitumen is a mixture of heavy oil, sand, clay and water. It is separated from the sand and water in a centrifuge prior to dilution for transportation.
Cambridge Energy Research Associates（Cera）报告加拿大油砂的增长：发现一个新的余额被设计为均衡的研究（参与者包括加拿大政府，石油公司和非政府组织），以解决与油砂开发和加工相关的各个方面。
The Council on Foreign Relations’ (CFR) recent report The Canadian Oil Sands: Energy Security vs. Climate Change explores the tensions between energy security and climate change surrounding the Canadian oil sands and provides policy recommendations to address these two interests.