Liquid petroleum pipelines carry crude oil and refined petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, etc.) across state and even country borders (interstate & international) as well as within states (intrastate). Pipelines are widely acknowledged to be the safest and most efficient way to move energy products overland for long distances; crude oil and natural gas from production areas to processing plants and refineries, and consumer-ready products to markets.
Bitumen is a mixture of heavy oil, sand, clay and water. It is separated from the sand and water in a centrifuge prior to dilution for transportation.
Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA’s) report Growth in Canadian Oil Sands: Finding a New Balance was designed as a balanced study (participants include Canadian government, oil companies and NGOs) to address various aspects associated with oil sands development and processing.
The Council on Foreign Relations’ (CFR) recent report The Canadian Oil Sands: Energy Security vs. Climate Change explores the tensions between energy security and climate change surrounding the Canadian oil sands and provides policy recommendations to address these two interests.